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Record Identifier:LEX-FAOC177229
Date of Entry:2018-06-01
Initials - Entry:var
Date of last modification:2018-10-17
Initials - Modify:var
Record Status:C
Sub-file Code:AG; EG; FI; WA; WB
Main Area(s):WA-Water
Language of the FAOLEX Record:E
Language of Received Document:Arabic.
Title of Text:Water Law No.77 of 2018.
Original Title:قانون المياه رقم 77 لسنة 2018
Type of Text:L
Main/classifying keywords:218; 201
freshwater quality/freshwater pollution; groundwater
Descriptors (AG):652; 073
agricultural development; irrigation
Descriptors (FI):917; 059
protection of environment; wetlands
Descriptors (WA):001; 002; 850; 209; 211; 232; 080; 245; 034; 201; 849; 850; 474; 704; 241; 240; 073; 018; 231; 212; 201; 214; 233; 479; 210; 072; 806; 043
framework law; basic legislation; sustainable use; pollution control; water abstraction; water supply; transport/storage; water rights; authorization/permit; groundwater; sustainable development; sustainable use; potable water; waste disposal; flood; water shortage/drought; irrigation; royalties/fees; waterworks; well sinking/boreholes; groundwater; water quality standards; sewerage; water desalination; surface water; drainage/land reclamation; comparative analysis; registration
Descriptors (WB):917; 059; 238
protection of environment; wetlands; ecosystem preservation
Descriptors (EG):721
energy conservation/energy production
Date of Text:2018-04-13
Entry into Force (Notes):This Law enters into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette.
Related Web
Related Files: leb177229.pdf; DE:leb177229.pdf
Abstract:This Law, consisting of 112 articles divided in 10 Sections, aims at regulating, developing, and rationalizing the exploitation of water resources, and protecting them from depletion and pollution and improving the efficiency of transport and distribution systems. It also concerns maintaining and operation of water facilities in order to ensure their sustainable management. The Ministry of Energy and Water has the power to manage public water resources. Article 3 states that every beneficiary shall enjoy any water resource, in a way that does not harm these resources or the interests of others and prohibits the exploitation of groundwater resources without prior authorization. Article 4 lists the general objectives through sustainable water management, such as (i) providing citizens with drinking water; (ii) achieving wastewater disposal; (iii) fighting floods, drought and emergency or chronic pollution; (iv) meet the water requirements for agriculture, livestock, fishing, inland fisheries, mineral water extraction, industry and power generation; (v) conserving and restoring the aquatic environment, as well as terrestrial ecosystems and associated wetlands; and (vi) using, whenever possible, non-traditional water sources. Article 5 recognizes the basic right of every person to obtain the water necessary for his needs, and this justifies obligating the beneficiaries to pay the subscription allowances for their use of water, and includes the sanitation between the elements of the right of water.

The Law also establishes that (i) no one shall extract groundwater by drilling artesian wells or by any other means without obtaining prior authorization or authorization from the Ministry of Energy and Water; (ii) shall be established the National Water Authority (chaired by the Prime Minister and members of the Ministers of Energy and Water, Environment, Industry, Agriculture, Health, and Tourism) with an advisory role, aiming at the development of the objectives and guidelines for a sustainable water sector together with establishment of national policy for water projects, guidelines, and reports about work progress; (iii) the Ministry of Energy and Water contributes to setting the quality standards and provisions necessary for the conservation of water and the necessary environmental systems; (iv) the Ministry also undertakes technical control over equipment, installations and works to verify the quality of water abstracted, control water systems and protect against pollution; (v) the public water institutions determine the rules for equitable distribution of water among different categories of users; (vi) the tariffs for public water services shall be determined taking into account the financial balance for each service and the social and economic conditions of the beneficiaries and they shall be based on the amount of consumption; (vii) the Minister of Energy and Water shall take appropriate precautionary measures to reduce damage in areas that may be exposed to flood; (viii) in areas with water deficit, the Ministry must put in place procedures to ensure the rationalization of water use, ensuring the balance of the ecosystem, while in these areas meeting household water needs and irrigation needs of the population is a priority; (ix) a water registry, an inventory of all water input and output, is established and will be updated periodically by the Ministry of Energy and Water.

The Ministry of Energy and Water, in cooperation with public water investment institutions, sets the General Water Master Plan for the water management, including (i) water needs in key sectors as human consumption, agriculture, livestock, industries and similar activities, tourism and recreational activities; (ii) state of water infrastructure, sewage systems and sea water desalination; (iii) quantities of conventional and non-conventional water, surface water, underground and springs water; and (iv) objectives of sustainable water management.

Regarding the services, the Law deals with (i) management for drinking water; (ii) sewage management; (iii) irrigation; (iv) establishment of irrigation associations aiming at providing the possibility of using water for irrigation, contributing to the implementation and management of irrigation sustainable projects, assisting in land reclamation, improving irrigation techniques, managing distribution and irrigation networks, controlling that water is used for irrigation and punishing the violators. The public investment institutions and the National Authority of the Litani River are responsible for the management of irrigation water, including the maintenance, storage, transportation, distribution and maintenance of water harvesting systems.

Furthermore, art.102 of the Law sets out guidelines for the establishment of a ‘water police’ that monitors violations, protects resources, and keeps factories and companies in check.